What is JAVA Programming

Java Programming

In this article we will learn about What is JAVA Programming. Java is a widely-used, object-oriented, and versatile programming language that has been a cornerstone in the software development industry since its introduction by Sun Micro-systems in 1995. Known for its platform independence, reliability, and ease of use, Java has become a popular choice for building a variety of applications, ranging from web and mobile applications to enterprise-level systems.

Key Features of Java:

Platform Independence:

  • One of Java’s most significant strengths is its “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA) philosophy. Java code can be written on one platform and executed on any other platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which allows developers to create applications that can run on different devices and operating systems without modification.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

  • Java is designed around the principles of object-oriented programming, which promotes the use of objects for organising
  •  and structuring code. This paradigm enhances code reusability, maintainability, and scalability, making it easier for developers to manage and extend their applications.

Automatic Memory Management:

  • Java incorporates automatic memory management through its garbage collection mechanism. This feature alleviates developers from manual memory management tasks, reducing the risk of memory leaks and making Java applications more robust.

Rich Standard Library:

  • Java comes with an extensive standard library that provides a wide range of pre-built classes and packages. This library simplifies common programming tasks, such as file I/O, networking, and data manipulation, allowing developers to focus on solving specific problems rather than reinventing the wheel.


  • Java places a strong emphasis on security, making it a preferred choice for building applications in sensitive environments. The Java security model includes features such as classloaders, byte-code verification, and a robust set of APIs that help create secure and reliable software.

Multithreading Support:

  • Java supports multithreading, allowing developers to create concurrent and parallel applications. This is particularly useful for enhancing the performance of applications that can benefit from executing multiple tasks simultaneously.

Community and Ecosystem:

  • Java has a vibrant and active community of developers, which contributes to a rich ecosystem of libraries, frameworks, and tools. Popular frameworks like Spring, Hibernate, and Apache Struts, along with integrated development environments like Eclipse and IntelliJ IDEA, further enhance the productivity of Java developers.
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Applications of Java:

Web Development:

  • Java is widely used for building dynamic and scalable web applications. Frameworks like Spring and JavaServer Faces (JSF) simplify the development of web-based solutions.

Mobile Development:

  • Android, one of the most popular mobile operating systems, uses Java as its primary programming language. Java is employed to build Android applications, ranging from simple mobile apps to complex enterprise solutions.

Enterprise Applications:

  • Java is a go-to language for developing large-scale enterprise applications. Its robustness, scalability, and platform independence make it well-suited for business-critical systems.

Desktop Applications:

  • Java Swing and JavaFX provide tools for creating cross-platform desktop applications with rich user interfaces.

Cloud Computing:

  • Java’s portability and scalability make it a preferred choice for developing applications in cloud environments. Many cloud services and platforms support Java-based applications.

In conclusion, Java’s versatility, platform independence, and strong community support have contributed to its enduring popularity in the software development landscape. Whether you are building web applications, mobile apps, enterprise systems, or working in emerging technologies like cloud computing, Java continues to be a reliable and powerful choice for developers worldwide.

Java Terminology

Before learning Java, one must be familiar with these common terms of Java.

  1. Java Virtual Machine(JVM): This is generally referred to as JVM. There are three execution phases of a program. They are written, compile and run the program.
  • Writing a program is done by a java programmer like you and me.
  • The compilation is done by the JAVAC compiler which is a primary Java compiler included in the Java development kit (JDK). It takes the Java program as input and generates bytecode as output.
  • In the Running phase of a program, JVM executes the bytecode generated by the compiler.

Now, we understood that the function of Java Virtual Machine is to execute the bytecode produced by the compiler. Every Operating System has a different JVM but the output they produce after the execution of bytecode is the same across all the operating systems. This is why Java is known as a platform-independent language.

  1. Bytecode in the Development Process:  As discussed, the Javac compiler of JDK compiles the java source code into bytecode so that it can be executed by JVM. It is saved as .class file by the compiler. To view the bytecode, a disassembler like javap can be used.
  2. Java Development Kit(JDK): While we were using the term JDK when we learn about bytecode and JVM. So, as the name suggests, it is a complete Java development kit that includes everything including compiler, Java Runtime Environment (JRE), java debuggers, java docs, etc. For the program to execute in java, we need to install JDK on our computer in order to create, compile and run the java program.
  3. Java Runtime Environment (JRE): JDK includes JRE. JRE installation on our computers allows the java program to run, however, we cannot compile it. JRE includes a browser, JVM, applet support, and plugins. For running the java program, a computer needs JRE.
  1. Garbage Collector: In Java, programmers can’t delete the objects. To delete or recollect that memory JVM has a program called Garbage Collector. Garbage Collectors can recollect the objects that are not referenced. So Java makes the life of a programmer easy by handling memory management. However, programmers should be careful about their code whether they are using objects that have been used for a long time. Because Garbage cannot recover the memory of objects being referenced.
  2. ClassPath: The classpath is the file path where the java runtime and Java compiler look for .class files to load. By default, JDK provides many libraries. If you want to include external libraries they should be added to the classpath.




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